||This report presents an analysis of progress and disparities among children in South Africa. Data show significant progress during the past two decades in areas such as child poverty, child survival, mother-to-child transmission of HIV and primary school attendance, among others. These are impressive achievements, but they are only part of the story. Stark gaps in opportunity – between rich and poor households, urban and rural communities, Black African and White children – perpetuate intergenerational cycles of deprivation. Disadvantages based on gender, disability and other markers persist.